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Full text of "Shells and sea life."

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SHELLS amd SEA LIFE 

y4 Monthly Publication on Mollusks and Sea Life 



$3.00 April, 1985 



Volume 17, Number 4 




Actaeon eloiseae Abbott, 1973 — Photo by Marty Gill 



EDITOR'S NOTES 

It has taken a lot of hard work but we have done it "with a 
little help from our friends." In a very short time we will be back 
on full schedule with our new format and looking better than 
ever. This year promises to be great with many excellent articles 
in the line and many more promised to us by authors. 

It seems that every month we need a new piece of equipment or 
software to provide better service to our subscribers. The March 
additions were a small printing press for flyers and booklists, and 
a folder-stapler to put things together — not to mention the 
building additions mentioned in the February issue. We will tell 
you more about how things are put together as the months go by. 

We really have to give special mention to two people who have 
greatly helped to shape this magazine — Jack Brookshire, who 
receives calls at almost any time of the day or night — and 
Leonard J. Hansen, who has helped us shape our policies and 
given us invaluable aid in many of the areas necessary to make a 
successful magazine. 

The summer conventions are on the way. We hope to meet 
many of you at CO. A., A.M.U. or W.S.M. this year. It is 
impossible to be certain we will be able to attend because of the 
magazine production schedules but we certainly are working 
toward that goal. 

Our apologies to Mary "Pecten" Flentz for misspelling her 
name in the January issue of S&SL. Also, the photo shown is of 
only a small part of her beautiful display which won the duPont 
Trophy. 

As I am writing this, the May and June issues of SHELLS and 
SEA LIFE are nearing completion. Do we have some articles for 
you! Roland Anderson on clams; Richie Goldberg on Orthalicus 
labeo; Daniel Keren on Palau seashell stamps; Lewis Macf arlane 
on shelling in Dar es Salaam; Don Shasky on Thyca\ Ron Shimek 
on turrids; Emily Vokes with murex species described by Roland 
Houart; Peggy Williams on Caribbean shells plus regular features 
and columns. 



Actaeon eloiseae Abbott, 1973 
Cover photograph 
The shell pictured here came from the type locality near an 
island off the coast of Oman. This photo (in larger format) was 
part of Marty Gill's display at the Long Island Shell Club show 
last September. The display took a blue ribbon. Marty does his 
own color printing. 

122 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 

Volume 17 Contents Number 4 



25 rr 



7 Q 



132 



A new dwarf form of Volutoconus grossil 

Richard L. Goldberg 124 

READER FORUM: I.S. Roginskaya 1 

PUBLICATION NOTES 127 

Branchin' the Pacific coast of Baja. 

Jim Gatewood 128 

The trivalved mollusk. Richard E. Petit - 
PERSONAL NOTES 134 

Peter Haaker, Mathilde Teitgen 

WHAT IS IT? 134 

Suggestions for preparing manuscripts for SHELLS and 

SEA LIFE. S&SL 135 

Of Sea and Shore. Tom Rice 139 

Meet Navanax — head on. 

David W. Behrens 144 

ON THE REEF WITH BOB PURTYMUN 145 

Haliotis asinina 

Now I'm a believer! Roland Anderson 149 

DEALING WITH DEALERS: The synonym syndrome. 

David DeLucia 151 




uo«Y nut 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE 

formerly the OPISTHOBRANCH 

Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Photographic Editor David K. Mulliner 

Contributing Editor Tom Rice 

Editorial Review Board 

R. Tucker Abbott David W. Behrens 

Hans Bertsch Kerry B. Clark 
Walter O. Cernohorsky Malcolm Edmunds 

Eugene V. Coan Terrence Gosliner 

Michael T. Ghiselin James R. Lance 

George L. Kennedy T.E. Thompson 
William G. Lyons 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE was formerly known as 
the OPISTHOBRANCH NEWSLETTER. The 
magazine is open to articles and notes on any 
aspect of malacology or related marine life. 
Articles submitted for publication are subject to 
editorial board review. Articles should be 
submitted typed and double -spaced. For 



additional information send for free booklet 
"Suggestions for Contributors". 

We undertake no responsibility for unsolicited 
material sent for possible inclusion in the 
publication. No material submitted will be 
returned unless accompanied by return postage 
and packing. Authors will receive 10 free 
reprints of their article. Additional reprints may 
be purchased. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE ISSN 0747-6078 is 
published monthly for $24 per year by Steven J. 
Long & Sally Bennett, 505 E. Pasadena, Phoenix, 
AZ 85012. Second-Class Postage Paid at 
Phoenix, AZ. POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to SHELLS and SEA LIFE, 505 E 
Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012. Telephone (602) 
274-3615. Outside U.S. postal ZIP code areas, 
add $5 surface or $30 air mail postage. Library 
basic rate is $36/year plus applicable postage. 
Send change of address 6 weeks in advance. 
Charge to remail issue for any reason $350. 
Sample copies $3. 50 each postpaid. Rates subject 
to change without notice. 
© Copyright Steven Long & Sally Bennett 1985 



A new dwarf form of Volutoconus gross]? 

Richard L. Goldberg, Worldwide Specimen Shells 

P.O. Box 137, Fresh Meadows, NY 11365 








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Volutoconus g rossi mcmichaeli Habe & Kosuge, 1966 (form?). Trawled east of North Reef 
Light, Capricorn Channel area, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia; 75 fathoms; by 
commercial fishing boat. Shells 53-56 mm length. 

Over the past few years, Australian fishing boats working in 
the Capricorn Channel area of the Great Barrier Reef have 
surfaced a number of new and unusual species, including 
Galeodea maccamleyi and Notovoluta gardneri. Among these and 
other finds, is a dwarf form of the rare volute, Volutoconus grossi. 
A small number of live-taken specimens trawled in early 1984 
have various characteristics that mimic typical grossi, and the 
subspecies mcmichaeli. 

In 1966 Donald McMichael described a small (60-70 mm) form 
of V. grossi as subspecies helenae. This has now fallen into 
synonymy of subspecies mcmichaeli. The color and pattern of 
helenae were described as orange-red with numerous, discrete 
small white markings, roughly triangular, and circled with four 
discontinuous dark brown to black bands. Except for the four 
bands (our grossi form here has two), the color and tenting are 
similar. The size generally is slightly smaller than McMichael's 
form. In Weaver & duPont's "The Living Volutes," they give 
adult size ranges for V. grossi grossi as averaging about 1 10 mm, 
and for V. grossi mcmichaeli as 60-97 mm. So in fact, these 
Capricorn Channel V. grossi are the smallest recorded adult 
specimens collected. 



124 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



The Capricorn Channel V. grossi have the general shape of 
typical grossi, but the pattern of mcmichaeli. The protoconch of 
typical grossi is described as being smooth, and the teleoconch 
consisting of only minute, longitudinal growth lines. V. grossi 
mcmichaeli on the other hand has its protoconch radially ribbed, 
and the teleoconch with longitudinal ribs that become somewhat 
less pronounced on the adult body whorl. Our mystery grossi 
form has all the characteristics mentioned for subspecies 
mcmichaeli. 

One of the three grossi forms I have observed has three bands 
with reduced ribs on the protoconch, so I assume that they vary 
considerably. I would personally say these are a range extension 
for V. grossi mcmichaeli, but I have been told by other collectors 
that they feel it is typical grossi. Whether they be typical, 
subspecific or possibly a new form, they are undeniably among 
the more beautiful and rare species being brought up in 
Australia. 

READER FORUM 

Brad v baena sp. I am sending you this portrait of Bradybaena 
sp. that was slowly crossing the asphalt road near Moscow at the 
end of June 1977. The snails were unusually abundant, crawling 
in all directions on the motor roads. The interrupted humid 
mucous tracks left by Bradybaena sp. were approximately the 
same by size and configuration, and arranged nearly at the same 
distance one from another, undoubtedly reflecting the 
mechanism of displacement of the snail on hard, rough 
substrates. This provides obvious confirmation of so-called 
"galloping" movement, supposed by some authors for terrestrial 
pulmonates. It is astonishing, but despite the abundance of 
snails I succeeded in finding such clear unbroken tracks only 
once. — Dr. I.S. Roginskaya, P.P. Shirshov Institute of 
Oceanology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 23, Krasikova St., 
Moscow, USSR, 117218 



*3* 



. *&'■■ 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 125 




House of Quality and Service 

RICHARD M. KURZ, INC. 

1575 NORTH 118th STREET 
WAUWATOSA, W5 53226 U.S.A. 



Dealer in Fine and Rare Specimen Shells 
of Superior Quality 



The very best shells, at the very best prices 



WRITE FOR 
FREE PRICE LIST 

SHELLS BOUGHT, SOLD AND TRADED 



LARGEST MAIL ORDER SEASHELL DEALER IN THE U.S.A. 



126 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



PUBLICATION NOTES 

McLean, James H. 1984. Systematics of Fissurella in the Peruvian 
and Magellanic provinces (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Con- 
tributions in Science, Los Angeles County Museum, (354), 70 p., 
267 b&w figs. Order No. 848 — $7.50. 

The 58 named fissurellid taxa in these provinces have been reduced to 13 species and 
three subspecies. Excellent illustrations are given of the shells, animals and radulae. — 
Walter Sage 

Wagner, Robert J.L. & R. Tucker Abbott. 1985. Supplement 3 to 
Standard Catalog of Shells. American Malacologists, Inc., 
Melbourne FL. 32pp. Soft cover Order No. 0781 — $7.00 

Since the first edition of this valuable catalog came into print in 1964, enthusiastic 
collectors have enjoyed the listings of the largest known specimens of a given mollusk 
species. This new supplement provides world siee records for over 1000 species of 
mollusks, concentrating on specimens over four centimeters (1-1/2 inches), butincluding 
all cones and cowries. Records are listed alphabetically by genera, with the geographic 
locality, present owner, and date collected or registered. A new feature is the use of an 
explanation point (!) to indicated that the owner of a world record shell personally 
collected that specimen. 

Information on measuring shells, how to establish that a specimen is of world record 
size, and a short bibliography complete this compilation. It is hoped that collectors will 
find this supplement of interest and will send changes or additions to the authors for 
inclusion in future editions. — Walter Sage 

Rice, Tom, 1985, Ninth Edition, A Shelters Directory of Clubs, 
Books Periodicals and Dealers. Of Sea and Shore Publications 
102 p. Soft cover Order No. 315 — $3.75. 

The latest edition of this informative book filled with useful information on shell club 
addresses, basic shell books, shell periodicals and shell dealers. The book is so useful and 
so inexpensive that it is ridiculous to be without a current copy. Our personal preference 
would be alphabetical arrangement; perhaps more people prefer the arrangement by 
locality used in this reference. — S&SL 




VVCNER AND ABBOTTS 



' ,i 




OF SHELLS m 



NINTH EDITION 



1985 



A SHELLER'S DIRECTORY OE CLUBS. 
BOOKS. PERIODICALS AND DEALERS 

i 




SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



127 



Branchin' the Pacific coast of Baja 

Jim GatewOOd, 7584 Amethyst, Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730 

Christmas, my birthday and diving expeditions for nudi- 
branchs all have the same effect on me. I can't wait for them to 
arrive. So, when Dan Gotshall called and asked if I would be 
interested in a diving trip to the San Benito Islands, I answered 
with a quick "You betcha!" and started counting the days to 
departure. 

Finally August 5th arrived, and with notebooks, specimen jars, 
camera and, of course, my SCUBA equipment, I was off to San 
Diego to begin what was to be a very exciting expedition. 

There were 15 of us going on the trip, ranging from college 
professors and housewives to grocery clerks and doctors, all 
eagerly anticipating what was to come. Cameras were just as 
numerous as spearguns, and soon we had our gear stowed, and 
had laid claim to our bunks. Then, with favorite drink in hand, 
we began to get acquainted and talk about the trip and of course 
our underwater experiences. Our home for the next six days was 
to be the "Sand Dollar," one of San Diego's best diving boats. At 
midnight sharp Bill Johnson, our skipper, had us heading south 
along the Pacific coast of Baja. 

We arrived at San Martin Island by late afternoon. It is a 
volcanic island about one mile wide and almost 500 feet high at 
its peak. My notes said it was surrounded by lush kelp beds and 
the bottom was described as mostly rocky. Well, I obviously had 
a pre-el Nino set of notes. The rocks were there, but the lush kelp 
had been reduced to more like sparse groupings. Anyway, a true 
"brancher" doesn't need much kelp to be successful, and I was 
more than ready to get wet. 

Before donning my wet suit, I decided to search out a diving 
buddy. Now this can be a task of great significance for some 
people, but for me there are just a few simple rules that must be 
met. Rule 1: My dive buddy must have adequate equipment, (i.e., 
a B.C. with at least 35 lbs of lift and a regulator with an octopus). 
Rule 2: My dive buddy should have experience diving with a 
camera. Rule 3; Beautiful women have priority over all other 
available dive buddies. Luck was with me! I found a dive 
buddy who qualified easily on all counts. 

After talking over the dive plan, my buddy and I jumped from 
the boat and headed towards the bottom. To my surprise there 
was a lot more kelp than I expected. It appeared to be very 
healthy looking, but it only rose to within five feet of the 
surface. When we reached the bottom the depth gauge read 35 ft. 
and the temperature read 65° F. There was some surge, but 

128 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 




Above left: Flabellina sp. found at Johnson Sea Mount; Above right: Doriopsilla 
albopunctata note chocolate brown dorsum; Bottom: Undescribed aeolid from West 
Benito Island. 




SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



129 



nothing to be really concerned about. My buddy indicated she was O.K., so we began 
our exploration. As we cruised over the bottom, hoping to find some obvious dorid 
clinging to the rocks, out of the corner of my eye I caught a glimpse of something pink! 
I immediately swam over to the spot and there under a waving kelp frond was a 
Hopkinsia rosacea slowly making its way across a rock. "Now this is the way to start!" I 
said to myself. I had taken a number of pictures before I finally noticed my buddy 
frantically waving her hand at me. As I raced to where she was, I could tell she wasn't 
in any trouble, but that she had something she wanted me to see. She had found a 
Mexichromis porterae under a small rock ledge. In order to get a photograph of this 
specimen, I needed to reposition it out in the open. While I was trying to do this, a 
pretty good sized swell came through and, well, I lost the nudibranch! Oh well, I 
thought, "the one that got away!" During this dive we found a total of 5 different 
species of opisthobranch. Besides the ones already mentioned, we also found 3 
specimens of Berihellina citrina and one each of Hermissenda crassicornis and Jorunna 
pardus. My diving partner was very excited and told me she had never seen so many 
different types of nudibranchs before. 

Our second dive at San Martin Island was much the same as the first, except that on 
this dive I was able to add Aplysia californica to my list of specimens identified. 

That evening I met a man who was also interested in photographing nudibranchs, 
and I told him that I would like to have an "extra pair of eyes" to help me collect and 
photo "branchs." We discussed the types of Pacific coast specimens we might encounter 
at the San Benito Islands, and specifically a rather gaudy reddish-purple aeolid found 
only in that area. I told him it was important that we collect as many specimens of this 
particular aeolid as possible, because it had not been totally described to science yet. 1 
also asked him if he was familiar with any of the Sea of Cortez species of 
opistobranchs. I explained to him that I had gone to Guadalupe Island, off the coast of 
Baja, the year before and had found a Chromodoris galexorum, which until then had 
only been found in the Sea of Cortez. My new friend smiled at me and I could almost 
read his thoughts... "new species" ... "range extensions" .... I knew 1 had found a good 
"pair of extra eyes." 

The coffee smelled delicious and it was just what I needed on a Monday morning. 
As I stood on deck sipping it, admiring the clear blue sky dotted with a few puffy white 
clouds, the San Benito Islands loomed into view. They consist of 3 small islands known 
simply as East Benito, Benito Center and West Benito. The largest is West Benito, just a 
little larger than Santa Barbara Island in the California Channel Island group. Except 
for a lighthouse keeper and a small group of abalone divers, who double as red algae 
collectors in the off season, on West Benito, the islands are uninhabited by human 
beings. On Benito Center and East Benito there are several rookeries of California sea 
lions, elephant seals and a small establishment of fur seals. 

We anchored off the southeast end of West Benito, and soon my new-found friend, 
my beautiful dive buddy from the first dive and I were over the side and heading 
towards the bottom. Water visibility was about 50 ft. and the temperature a 
comfortable 68 degrees. As we approached the bottom, I could see many sponge- 
covered rocks. However, a brief search of the area revealed no "branchs," so we swam 
on to the edge of the kelp canopy. There the bottom dropped off sharply to about 60 ft. 
and then gradually sloped down to 80 ft. At the bottom of the drop-off there was a 
massive pile of rocks that looked as though they had been stacked up on each other and 
then pushed over. On the underside of one of these rocks, I found our first specimen of 
the dive, a Tylodina fungina, munching on some sulphur sponge. Not a great discovery, 
but it was a beginning. I began turning over some of the smaller rocks — "rock- 
rolling" is not my favorite pastime, but I have usually found it to be most rewarding 
when searching for "branchs." After turning over 4 or 5 rocks, I discovered what I 
considered to be a real find, a Dendrodoris krebsi. I had found only 2 specimens of this 
nudibranch before, both in the Sea of Cortez. After 40 minutes underwater we had 
also collected and photographed a Navanax inermis and a Laila cockerelli, which had 
orange tipped tubercles, not the red tipped ones I had hoped to find. 

On returning to the boat, I noticed a crowd gathered round my new dive buddy, my 
"extra pair of eyes," who handed me his collection container and asked: "Is this what 
you've been looking for?" In the container were 4 of those gaudy, undescribed aeolids. 
"Fantastic!" I yelled, incredulous at the luck we had had. 

I made 3 more dives that day, another at West Benito on which we added Flabellina 
iodinea to the list, one at East Benito which produced nothing, and finally a night dive 

130 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



back at West Benito. On the night dive I again buddied up with my "extra pair of eyes," 
and the results were great. He found a Chromodoris dalli, normally found only in the 
Sea of Cortez, and I found specimens of an undescribed Dendrodoris and a Phyllidia. 

On Tuesday I made 3 dives, all at West Benito Island. Two dives were made at a spot 
called South Pinnacle. Although this was the most beautiful of all the dive spots I 
visited while at the Islands, it yielded nothing new to add to my identification list. 
While I was disappointed with the day's find, the nudibranchs had already begun to 
work their magic. That evening I must have answered over a hundred questions about 
"branchs," and I was amazed at how the interest in nudibranchs had grown in the few 
days we had been on our trip. 

The next day we anchored at Sacramento Reef which is located three miles WSWof 
Punta San Antonio. I made 2 dives this day and added another Jorunna pardus and a 
Doriopsilla albopunctata to my list. An interesting note about the latter was the 
chocolate color of the dorsum. I was also able to identify a Mexichromis porterae, a 
Flabellina iodinea, and another specimen of the undescribed Dendrodoris, all of which 
were brought aboard by different divers, in cupped hands, dive gloves, and the most 
impressive of all, a previously disposed of Corona beer bottle!. It seemed that all the 
talk about these colorful little sea slugs had started a real "Easter Egg Hunt." 

Early Thursday morning we arrived at Johnson Sea Mount, a pinnacle located less 
than a mile off the coast of Cabo San Quintin, noted on most charts simply as 
"Breakers." The sea mount rises from over 100 ft. to within 30 ft. of the surface. The 
sheer walls and an abundance of hydroids and sponges make Johnson Sea Mount an 
ideal area for photography. We made 2 dives here and collected 15 different species of 
nudibranchs, eight of which had not been found on any of the previous dives. Some of 
the more significant of the finds were Cad Una limbaughorum, Hypselodoris 
californiensis, Polycera atra, Triopha catalina, and Chromodoris macfarlandi, all of 
which are possible range extensions. I also collected an unidentifiable species of 
Flabellina. This specimen is approximately 20-25 mm in length, the ground color is 
white and the cerata are a dark brick red with a slightly lighter red at the tips. The 
white rhinophores are tipped in orange, as are the oral tentacles. It is very similar to 
Flabellina trilineata, but does not have the characteristic three white lines. Again this 
day most of the other divers made contributions to my identification list. One of the 
divers had brought up an old anchor from 1 10 ft. deep, and while cleaning his treasure, 
noted some egg masses and 2 Rostanga pulchra. Altogether about half of all the 
specimens I identified at Johnson Sea Mount were collected by the other divers. 

After lunch we headed for Roca Ben, which is a small pinnacle about 2.5 miles south 
of San Martin Island. This area is very similar to Johnson Sea Mount in that there is 
very little kelp. We made one dive here, and then moved to San Martin Island for our 
final dive of the day. Seven different species were collected at Roca Ben, 3 of which 
were new additions to my identification list, i.e., Cadlina luteomarginata, Janolus 
barbarensis, and Phidiana pugnax. 

At San Martin Island we made a shallow dive of less than 30 ft. On this dive, by 
popular demand, I took 8 of the most colorful nudibranchs we had collected to the 
bottom with me, so that the other divers could photograph them. It turned out to be 
one of the funniest things I had ever seen underwater - all those photographers 
jockeying for the best position in which to photograph the little creatures! Eventually 
they all got sorted out and everyone was able to photograph at least 3 different species. 
While all this was going on, I was able to search the area for new specimens, and I found 
an Elysia hedgpethi on the green algae, Codium frigile. 

That evening we started on our return trip to San Diego, and I had time to organize 
my collection and reflect on the outstanding trip we had had. Thirty-one different 
species of opistobranch had been collected, 3 of which were undescribed or altogether 
new. 

I should like to thank everyone again for their help in the collection of specimens 
and information, especially our dive master, Jim Stewart, who always made sure we 
were safe. A special thank you goes to my "extra pair of eyes," Marc Chamberlain, 
whose enthusiasm and knowledge helped to stimulate the interest of the other divers, 
and to Patty Mariano, my beautuful dive buddy, for her patience and understanding 
throughout that week. 

[Editor — Results from the scientific data will appear in a future issue.] 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 131 



The trivalved mollusk 

Richard E. Petit 

P.O. Box 30 

North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 



Much has been written about Constantine Smaltz Rafinesque 
and his publications. To this day the mention of his name among 
malacologists, especially those of f luviatile persuasion, arouses as 
many different responses as there are persons present. It can be, 
and has been, argued that Rafinesque was either a genius, insane, 
or both. 

While many of Rafinesque's taxa are well-known, and others 
are still being debated, his trivalved mollusk has been forgotten. 
This story should probably begin with Rafinesque's 
acquaintance with John Audubon and the oft-told story of 
Rafinesque's demolition of Audubon's violin while using it to 
kill "new species" of bats. Rafinesque, regardless of his talents 
and intellect, was a species-monger, and Audubon was quick to 
recognize his cupidity regarding undescribed animals. 
Subsequently, possibly in retaliation for the destruction of his 
violin, Audubon described to Rafinesque imaginary animals 
which were duly named and entered into the scientific literature. 
Of course, Rafinesque did not need much assistance in this 
regard, as he named and published descriptions of sea-serpents 
from contemporary newspaper accounts. 

Our trivalved mollusk made its first appearance in 1818 under 
the name Notrema fissurella, a "new genus of f luviatile bivalve 
shell of the family of Brachiopodes." Rafinesque was not certain 
if the creature was a brachiopod or a mollusk, and he really 
should not have been expected to know as he had never seen one. 
He states that "I have not seen the living animal myself, but Mr. 
Audubon of Hendersonville, a zealous observer, has drawn it, 
and it appears to have a head with two eyes and no tentacula 
jutting out of the perforation." Nonetheless, Rafinesque was 
quite capable of writing a detailed description of the shell, the 
living animal, and its lifestyle. He further stated that "It is 
found on the rocks of the bottom of the river Ohio, from the falls 
to the mouth; it is rare; diameter about one inch; it holds on 
wrecks as the Patellas do, and might be mistaken for one at first; 
the operculum has a hinge, when the animal wants to protrude 
the head, it opens it as a valve. The shell might, perhaps, be 
deemed trivalve on that account." 

132 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



No illustration accompanied this original description, but 
Audubon's drawing was published in 1820 when Rafinesque 
redescribed his Notrema, giving it a new generic name and a new 
specific name. This description, as Tremesia patelloides, stated 
that the species represents a new family intermediate between 
"les Brachiopes, tes Teredaires et les Patellaires." Incidentally, 
the species-level name patelloides was not entirely new, 
Rafinesque having used it in 1819 when referring to the shell as 
Notrema patelloides. 

The illustrations, reproduced here, show a limpet-like shell 
with a nondescript head poking through the operculated apical 
opening. Having spent considerable time with head and 
shoulders sticking up out of tank turrets, this writer can 
empathize with our Tremesia (alias Notrema). 

Tremesia (or Notrema) has received little notice in the 
scientific literature, probably for the simple reason that it is not 
worthy of scientific comment. Baron de Ferussac, in 1835, had 
more to say about it than anyone. His rather lengthy comments 
can be boiled down to one phrase employed in his discussion, 
"Chose incroyable !" 

Selected references 

Binney, W.G. & G.W. Tryon, Jr., 1864. The complete writings of Constantine Smaltz 

Rafinesque, on recent and fossil conchology. 96, 7 p.; 4 pis. London, Paris & Madrid. 

(reprinted 1984). 
Ferussac, Baron de, 1835. Observations ... sur la synonymie des coquilles bivalves de 

l'Amerique Septentrionale.... Magazine de Zoologie, 5(59-60):l-36. 
Haldeman.S.S. 1842. Notice of the zoological writings of the late C.S. Rafinesque. Amer. 

Journ. Sci. Arts, 42(2):280-291. 



^4 




SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 133 



PERSONAL NOTES 




WHAT IS IT from Pete Haaker: Enclosed is a slide of an 
unidentified marine "thing," for your new "what is it?" column. 
It appears to be some kind of egg case. I have seen these several 
times, always solitary on hard substratum, lightly covered with 
sandy silt. This one was photographed at Santa Rosa Island in 
July of 1981. The wine glass shaped object is quite flat (ca. 2 
mm) by 20 mm high, and ridged. — State Fisheries Laboratory 
1301 W. 12th St. Long Beach, CA 90813 

From Miss Mathilde Teitgen: Shell collecting has been my 
passion for over 20 years. After discovering that snorkeling 
worked well to collect shells, I decided to take scuba lessons. I'm 
a newly certified basic scuba diver from Long Island, New York 
and I'm planning a scuba trip to St. Thomas in May 1985. In the 
future I plan to go on other scuba and/or shell collecting 
expeditions. Unfortunately, I don't know many scuba divers 
and I don't know any divers who collect shells. Please write to 
me if you scuba dive to collect shells. I'd be happy to hear from 
you. — Miss Mathilde Teitgen, 45-25 248th St., Little Neck, NY 
11362 



134 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



Suggestions for Preparing Manuscripts for 
SHELLS and SEA LIFE 

505 E. Pasadena 
Phoenix, Arizona 85012-1518 U.S.A. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE (S&SL) welcomes notes and articles on 
any aspect of malacology — or related marine life. Even topics 
only indirectly concerned with mollusks will be considered. 
Articles on shells will, however, receive priority. We attempt to 
absorb all production costs (typesetting, color separations, 
halftones and author revisions) but they should be borne in mind 
by authors. Donations to help defray expenses are always 
welcome. 

It is the policy of S&SL not to change the writing style of 
authors, nevertheless there are a few policies that have been 
found necessary to decrease the possibility of misinterpretations 
and errors. 

The PERSONAL NOTES and READER FORUM sections of 
S&SL are wide open for short contributions from anyone. They 
are intended to provide places where amateur and professional 
naturalists can record field observations. You can provide a real 
service by recording and reporting field observations, no matter 
how unimportant they may seem. (An example would be obser- 
vation of egg laying including locality, date & species.) All it 
takes is an observant eye, a piece of paper, an envelope, and a 
stamp. 

Notes should be less than 500 words and may include 
photographs or drawings. "What is it?" photos are especially 
encouraged. They should give all available information on 
where and when the observation was made. Book reviews are 
also encouraged — see recent issues of the magazine for format 
and style. 

"Notes" for the magazine are not subject to Editorial Review 
Board review and are very flexible in format and content. 
"Literature cited" should not be included in "notes". "Scientific 
articles" should follow the style guidelines suggested below. 

There are a few rules that apply to all scientific writing. 
While it may be unnecessary for the majority of our potential 
contributors, we will repeat them here for the benefit of those 
whose paper may be their very first venture: 

1) The name of the author submitting a manuscript should 
appear at the top of every page. The mauscript should be in final 
form, complete, carefully proof-read. All pages should be 
numbered consecutively. The sequence of manuscript parts 
should be as follows in most cases: title, introduction, materials 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. A 135 



and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, literature 
cited, figure legends, figures and tables. 

2) Under no condition start a sentence with an abbreviation or 
with a number written in numerals. Within a sentence, numbers 
one to ten are written out and larger numbers are expressed in 
numerals (e.g., 11, 121, 1985). 

3) Avoid the use of idioms, as scientific papers must be read by 
persons of many different tongues; idioms too frequently give 
rise to serious misunderstandings. 

4) Scientific names are underlined to indicate that they should 
be set in Italics. A double straight underlining indicates that 
small capitals are required and a triple underlining indicates 
ALL CAPITALS. A wavy line by itself calls for bold face. 

5) We request that for the first appearance in a paper, the 
scientific name of any species discussed or cited be given in full, 
including author and year of the original description. For 
example: Favartia (Pygmaepterys) peasei (Tryon, 1880). The 
generic name should be written out whenever it is mentioned for 
the first time in any paragraph. Also, it is better to spell out all 
generic names if in the same paragraph two or more genera are 
mentioned that begin with the same letter. 

6) The use of FAMILY NAMES is encouraged. The name 
should be in CAPITALS and be clearly associated with the 
species in that family. In general it should immediately preceed 
the use of the full scientific name, author and date. 

7) "Common names" may be used anywhere within notes or 
articles subject to the following: Common names will be 
capitalized only when the first appearance of each common name 
is adjacent to the Latin name, author and date. Subsequent usages 
may be with only the capitalized Common Name. Names 
introduced without the scientific name adjacent will all be 
treated as common nouns and set in lower case type (except, of 
course, proper noun place names, etc.). The same policy is used 
with abbreviations which must be introduced by the fully 
spelled-out term or name. 

8) If you are using terms which are not readily available in 
standard dictionaries please include a short definition with each 
term — separate from the article. This is preferable to defining 
the term in the text. We will include a GLOSSARY from time to 
time as necessary. 

9) Footnotes are discouraged. If the article is so complex as to 
require footnotes, it may belong in a pure scientific journal. 
Extended quotes and other "footnote" material should be referred 
to by sequential numbers in the text and placed in an appendix at 
the end of the article. 

136 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



10) Square brackets "[ ]" are normally used to set off editorial 
comments or addition within articles. Authors should avoid the 
used of square brackets. 

Articles may include color or black and white illustrations. 
Either 35mm color transparencies and/or prints may be sent in 
although prints are preferred. Please note that prints are 
frequently trimmed before scanning and must be spray-mounted 
for scanning. It is not always possible to return the print after 
use — which is why we recommend that you keep your original 
slide or negative and send us a print. 

We cannot guarantee that we will print any particular photo in 
color. The quality of the photograph and the amount of color 
printing space we have available determine what is printed in 
color. 

Authors should follow the style guidelines recommended in the 
"Style Manual for Biological Journals", which may be purchased 
from the American Institute of Biological Sciences, 2000 "P" 
Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036. Original manuscripts 
should be typewritten on white paper, 8-1/2" x 11", and double- 
spaced throughout. You may include a copy to facilitate review; 
the original is required. 

LITERATURE CITED 

References in the text should be given by the name of the 
author(s) followed by the date of publication: for one author 
(smith, 1951), for two authors (smith & jones, 1952), and for more 
than two (smith et al. t 1953). 

The "literature cited" section must include only references 
cited in the text. "Literature cited" should be listed in 
alphabetical order by author and typed on sheets separate from 
the text. Each citation must be complete and in the following 
form: 

a) Periodicals 

Hertlein, L.G. & A.M. Strong. 1946. Eastern Pacific expeditions of the New York 
Zoological Society. XXXV. Mollusks from the west coast of Mexico and Central 
America. Part IV. Zoologica 31 (3):93-120; 1 pi. (5 Dec. 1946). 

b) Books 

Keen, A. M. 1971. Sea shells of tropical west America; marine mollusks from Baja 
California to Peru, 2nd ed. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif, xiv + 1064 p.;illust. 
(1 Sep. 1971). 

c) Composite works 

Feder, H.M. 1980. Asteroidea: the sea stars. Iik R.H. Morris, D.P. Abbott & E.C. 
Haderlie (eds.), Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, 
Calif, p. 117-135. 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 137 



We prefer complete citations including full author names, 
exact publication dates, series identification, volume and issue 
numbers, full pagination, plates, figures, tables, appendices and 
any other information. We will format them to meet our 
requirements. 

Tables, numbered in arabic, should be on separate pages, with 
the title at the top. Legends to photographs should be typed on 
separate sheets. Text figures must be carefully prepared and 
should be submitted ready for publication. Text figures should 
be in black ink and completely lettered. Keep in mind page 
format and column size when designing figures. Explanatory 
terms and symbols within a drawing should be neatly printed. It 
is the author's responsibility that lettering is legible after final 
reduction (if any) and that lettering size is appropriate to the 
figure. 

REPRINTS, etc. 

Ten free reprints will be provided to authors. If you desire 
further reprints of articles, they should be ordered at the time the 
article is submitted for publication. Reprints of black and white 
articles are possible after publication but will be in photocopy. 
Color articles may be purchased after publication as complete 
issues at the cover price. Orders for more than 10 copies of an 
individual issue are available at a discount. Write for details. 

Articles already under consideration for publication with 
other periodicals are not acceptable for publication in SHELLS 
and SEA LIFE. If you wish to submit an article to more than one 
publication, please let us know when you write us. We will either 
accept or reject the article within 30 days so that you may send it 
elsewhere. After acceptance, the article will proceed through 
the review process to be published after all requirements are met. 

Short articles containing descriptions of new or repositioned 
taxa will be given priority provided the holotype(s) have been 
deposited with a recognized public museum and museum 
accession numbers are included with the manuscript. Scientific 
articles submitted for publication are subject to editorial board 
review and changes. Whenever possible, suggested changes will 
be coordinated with the author prior to publication. 

READER FORUM and PERSONAL NOTES may appear 
within 30 days of submission. Material requiring editorial board 
review will probably take a minimum of 60 days for publication. 

Articles and pictures accepted for publication, become the 
property of the SHELLS and SEA LIFE. No material received 
will be returned unless it arrives accompanied by return postage 
and mailing envelope with instructions for its disposition. 

138 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



Of Sea and Shore 

Tom Rice 




OF SEA 

AND 

SHORE 




During the years 1960 to 1964 a periodical aimed at the 
amateur sheller appeared, entitled Shells and Their Neighbours. 

It was printed on slick paper, and each issue had 16 pages of 
interesting articles with black and white photographs on all sorts 
of subjects, from shells to echinoderms, craft articles and travel 
tales. Unfortunately, it ceased publication in 1964, leaving the 
shell collector without a magazine which covered his interests. 

In 1968, while on a collecting trip to Mexico — something I did 
during the winter months whenever possible — with friends 
Mabel and Everett Stiles, I began thinking seriously of starting a 
successor to that short-lived publication. Everyone I talked to 
thought the idea great, but felt it would not be successful. I 
persisted. 

Upon my return home, I started compiling a file of shell 
collector names and addresses as potential subscribers to my 
proposed periodical. Since I had already begun publishing "A 
Shelter's Directory of Clubs, Books, Periodicals and Dealers" 
(now in its 9th edition) and "A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for 
Marine Shells" (8th edition out soon), I had a basic list of people 
with like interests. To add to these I contacted every shell club 
and requested a copy of their membership roster. I was amazed 
to find several clubs which either did not issue one, restricted 
release of the list to members only, or refused to send a list. A 
great majority of the clubs, however, promptly sent lists of 
members and I had soon compiled a file of nearly 5,000 names 
and addresses from around the world. 

Of course a successful publication cannot exist on subscrip- 
tions alone, so it was necessary to secure a number of advertisers 
— the more the better, and the more quality I could put into my 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



139 



publication. I also scouted around in the Seattle area to find a 
printer who could run 5,000 copies of a 48 page magazine at a 
reasonable price. Unfortunately, the response from potential 
advertisers did not come anywhere near meeting the costs of an 
initial press run, so the idea of the magazine suffered the 
possibility of being stillborn. 

At this time friends Jerry and Agnes Ward purchased a 
Gestetner mimeograph machine which produced copies of a 
quality I had not expected from such a printing process. I found 
that by slip-sheeting (placing a black sheet of paper on each one 
run through the machine) I could eliminate the problem of 
offsetting (ink from one sheet rubbing off onto the sheet on top 
of it), and reach a fair quality printing job at an extremely 
reasonable cost. So advertisers were contacted, ad copy received 
and articles secured from friends and shell-exchanging corre- 
spondents, for our first issue. 

Little did I surmise when I started that the amount of work in 
getting that first issue out would be as overwhelming as it was. I 
soon discovered that even at the slowest speed I could run the 
mimeo electrically, it was too fast to enable me to slip-sheet. So I 
decided to do the run by hand. I had electronically-cut stencils 
made — they last much longer and give a much higher quality of 
printing than those simply cut with a typewriter — and 
purchased mass quantities of mimeo paper. Since I planned to 
send a free copy of my first issue to everyone in my file of shell 
collectors, it meant that I must produce nearly 5,000 copies, or 
120,000 sheets of paper, printed on both sides and each one slip- 
sheeted for each of its two runs through the mimeo. This was a 
total of nearly 250,000 turns on the machine, 250,000 inserts of 
slip sheets, and then another 250,000 removals of those slip sheets 
when the ink had dried. Then each copy was hand collated and 
stapled inside a cover which I had printed on an old hand-fed 
printing press I had in the basement at home. 

Then came the addressing, stamping and mailing. Our small 
Port Gamble Post Office was overwhelmed when I mailed that 
first issue. You can imagine the look on the face of the man who 
picked up the mail from that small office, which normally ran a 
sack or two partially filled, when one day in the spring of 1970 he 
arrived to find nearly 20 sacks of mail awaiting him! 

One thing I had to eliminate from that first issue were 
photographs. I was able to substitute some drawings and I 
promised that the second issue (praying that there would be one) 
would contain the photographs missing from the initial number. 
This issue contained the first article of many from the pen of the 
delightful Corinne Edwards, as well as an initial number of a 

140 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



series of excerpts from the journals of noted naturalist and shell 
enthusiast Walter J. Eyerdam. I like to think that another 
article in this issue, on preserving chiton species by George 
Hanselman, started a resurgence in interest in this neglected 
group of mollusks. 

Then it was time to wait and see what the response would be to 
my "baby." Fortunately, I didn't have to wait long. Subscrip- 
tions and letters of congratulations started to come in from near 
and far. Of Sea and Shore Magazine was on its way! 

I would like to mention here a few of our advertisers who 
started with that first issue and continued to support our efforts 
throughout the life of the magazine — Seashell Treasures 
(through two sets of owners), Richard M. Kurz, M. C. Chandoo, 
Ceylon Express, Sea Perch, Elsie Malone, Phillip W. Clover and 
Althor Products. Summer of 1970 saw our first professionally 
printed issue — with those photographs which should have been 
in the first issue — going to subscribers in more than 50 countries 
around the globe. 



Of Sea & Shore 
Museum 

and 

Port Gamble 
General Store 




By the time we had issued our first volume of magazines — 
four issues per volume, a quarterly — I had been contacted by 
Ellis Robinson to do a book on Pacific Northwest shells. Ellis 
had a patented process for making inexpensive color separations, 
and volunteered to do separations for color covers for the 
magazine. I was ecstatic! 

In order for Ellis to closely supervise the printing of our color 
covers, we switched printers from the large Seattle company 
which had printed the final three issues of the first volume, to a 
smaller printer near Ellis's home. He was a very particular 
fellow. If you have a copy of the first number of volume two of 
the magazine, look closely at the back cover. You should see a 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



141 



bit of shellcraft with a poem — notice that you can read the poem 
clearly. The printer rejected his first run because the poem was 
blurred! 

Ellis continued to do our color separations through the years, 
with the exceptions of Volume 6, Number 4 and Volume 13, 
Number 1, which were black and white issues throughout. With 
Volume 8, Number 1 we were able to include eight pages of color 
in each issue. 

Over the years more than 300 people contributed articles to the 
magazine. These authors hailed from more than 30 different 
countries. 

Personal collecting trips to Central America and Mexico, as 
well as escorting, as tour leader, several shell collecting groups to 
various parts of the world, helped me gather information for 
articles I added to the magazine. It was sometimes amazing how 
quickly the pages of each issue filled — and other times 
(fortunately not as often) how slowly material was accumulated. 
Fortunately, I was able, for most of the issues, to meet the 
deadlines of getting out a quarterly publication. 

During the period from 1970 to 1979, 1 had a job which allowed 
me to devote a great deal of time to both the magazine and to the 
museum which we had opened in 1973. I was "on call" two weeks 
out of every four, to work the drawspan of the Hood Canal 
Floating Bridge to allow passage of ships into Hood Canal. In 
February, 1979, a storm with winds over 120 m.p.h. sank the 
western half of the bridge, and along with losing the bridge, I lost 
my job. Now all my time could be devoted to other interests — 
including a great trip to Florida in the winter of 1980 to attend 
many of the shell shows. In 1982 the bridge was reopened and I 
returned to my job. Unfortunately, the amount of hours worked 
and the pay scale were greatly reduced from what they had been, 
so I looked for other employment. In 1984 I gained full-time 
employment on the bridge, and soon discovered that I had little 
time to work on my magazine. This, along with other factors, led 
to my decision to cease publication. 

I shall always be grateful to our faithful and 

rstanding subscribers and advertisers, as well 

as those who generously contributed articles 

and other material for publication. They 

made those 15 years the best. I hope to 

continue my endeavours here in Shells 

and Sea Life, and with our other Of 

Sea and Shore publications. 

Tom Rice 

P.O. Box 219, Port Gamble, WA 98364 




142 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



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SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



143 



Meet Navanax — Head On 

Text by David W. Behrens, Route 1, Box 70-A, Templeton, CA 93465 

Photograph by Marc Chamberlain 




Navanax inermis Cooper, 1862 has been called the most 
voracious opisthobranch carnivore on the west coast. This 
denizen of shallow protected bays and open coastal environs is 
known to swallow suitable prey whole, by violently sucking it 
into its mouth. Paine 1963 (Veliger 6(l):l-9) presents a list of 
some 64 prey species, primarily other opisthobranchs, but 
including prosobranchs, worms, arthropods and two fishes. The 
only other mollusk known to feed on this latter prey are members 
of the genus Conus. 

This agile predator possesses a variety of sensory mechanisms, 
which by chemoreception, are capable of recognizing and 
locating prey at a distance. The accompaning photograph taken 
at 45 ft depth off Santa Cruz Island in the Santa Barbara Channel 
by Dr. Marc Chamberlain clearly shows two of Navanax's sensors: 
eyes and sensory mounds. Although Navanax has large and 
obvious eyes, which are light sensitive, and well developed for a 
cephalaspidean, there is no indication that this more obvious 
organ is of any use in prey detection. 

Most important in prey and mate detection is thought to be a 
unique feature, a pair of bristle covered "sensory mounds" on 
each side of the mouth. Although not yet documented, these 



144 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



sensory mounds, seen in the photograph in front of the eyes, are 
thought to be the sensory site at which Navanax detects (smells) 
sugars called mucopolysaccharides found in the slime trails 
produced by numerous opisthobranchs. Gosliner 1980 (Zool. 
Journ. Linn. Soc. 68(4):325-360) reports that as Navanax follows 
mucus trails, the sensory mounds move side to side, as if scanning 
for the highest concentration of this target chemical. 

An interesting addition to this chemoreception ability is that 
as Navanax follows the trail of an unwary prey, it secretes a 
chemical substance of its own, into its slime trail. This material 
or pheromone referred to as Navenones A, B & C (Sleeper & 
Fenical, 1973; Am. Chem. Soc. 99:2367-2368) when encountered 
by another Navanax elicits an immediate alarm and avoidance 
response which terminates the latter animals trail-following 
behavior. By this mechanism the following Navanax is deterred 
from cannibalizing as well as avoids potential danger, a step 
towards species preservation. 

ON THE REEF WITH BOB PURTYMUN: 
Haliotis asinina 

Bob Purtymun, P.O. Box 643, West Point, CA 95255 

Haliotis asinina Linnaeus, 1 758 is classed as a common mollusk in 
most books, and is very economical on price lists. I collected 
mine on Wheeler Reef, Great Barrier Reef, off Townsville, 
Australia, on the hull of a sunken dive boat in 10 feet of water. 

Several years ago the boat had anchored close in the lee for the 
night and early in the morning the South Easterlies had backed- 
off. With the wind coming from the other direction and all 
aboard asleep the boat swung on it's anchor and was driven on the 
reef where it broke up. 

Apparently H. asinina is not common in the Townsville area for 
it was the only one that I saw while diving or in collections that I 
viewed during my visit. This shell is 81 by 37 mm. 




SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 145 



DEALING WITH DEALERS: 
The synonym syndrome 

David DeLucia, 7 Sunset Hill Drive, Branford, CT 06405 

Have you ever ordered a shell from a dealer, only to find you 
already have the species under a different name? Dealing with 
synonymy may be inevitable for the advanced collector, but 
there are measures you can take to reduce the chance of getting a 
familiar friend with a new label, surely one of the most 
exasperating side effects of doing business via mail order. 

The first thing to do before ordering any shell with an 
unfamiliar name is to try to find the species in at least 3 
references, preferably those written in the last 10 years. Most 
well known treatises such as Keen's Sea Shells of Tropical West 
America list all the known synonyms of a given species, so it 
should be relatively simple to check and see if the name in 
question is represented. Fortunately, most dealers will list both 
names in the rare cases where two names are given to the same 
shell concurrently, i.e., Latiaxis chiangi Lan and Coralliophila 
armeniaca D'Atillio & Myers. 

Since most of the large families have an abundance of genera, 
it will pay off in the long run to learn as many of these tongue 
twisters as possible. Not all dealers use Murex, Voluta, Mitra, and 
Trochus. Just as likely are Ceratostoma, Cymbiolacca, Subcancilla, 
and Austrocochlea. If you are not aware that Typhis angasi is the 
same as Murex angasi, for example, you may order the former 
thinking it will be new to your collection. The moral is: learn as 
much about taxonomy as you can. A little knowledge goes a long 
way with mollusks, and as you gradually assimilate the different 
genera, you will see how shells within a family are related, 
always a fascinating diversion. 

Finally, be wary of dealers' lists that have a preponderance of 
specific names with no author given. Chances are good that such 
names were passed on by the supplier, who had no idea whether 
they were valid or not. The best dealers always check out any 
unfamiliar names, so if you see too many species in parenthesis 
with a question mark, you can be sure someone hasn't done his 
homework. 

Remember, when In doubt , cross h out ! Thousands of 
synonyms have been named over the years and the list, if 
anything, will get longer in the future. If worse comes to worst 
and you get a shell you already have, send it back immediately 
with an explanation of why the name is incorrect. Most mistakes 
on dealers' lists are caught by vigilant customers specializing in a 
particular family. 

146 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



A FIRST 

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The cowrie animal and its 
habits, as well as the shells, 
is the subject of this book by 
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200 are discussed — species, 
distribution and synonymy — 
all are illustrated in full colour 
of which over 150 show the 
living animal. In addition, 
there are 18 plates showing 
significant variations within 
a species, two plates showing 
species described since 1970, 
and schematic drawings of 
conchological and anatomical 
characters of the cowries. 



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Shell Pill Box, Lamp Shades, Paper Weight 
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We will select your shells as if they 
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were very, very picky! 

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Collectible Shells 
of Southeastern U.S., Bahamas 
& Caribbean by R. Tucker Abbott, Ph.D. 
A Take It to the Beach' Field Guide 
WATERPROOF — TEARPROOF 
105 beautiful color pages of living animals 
and their shells. 64 pages of color. 300 
species illustrated. How to clean shells. 
Where to find them. Includes fossils, pond 
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and state tax are included as a big savings. 

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148 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



Now I'm a believer! 

Roland Anderson, The Seattle Aquarium, Pier 59, Seattle, WA 98101 




Tochaina tetraquetra (Pallas, 1788) 

I have always been skeptical of the given size limits of some 
nudibranchs. David Behrens's definitive book on Pacific Coast 
nudibranchs lists some sizes that would be truly memorable to 
see. Even the common sea lemon may grow to 200 mm. At that 
size perhaps they would be called sea grapefruits? 

Recently I've had the opportunity to confirm one of Behrens' 
sizes when Dave Nisitano of the National Marine Fisheries 
Service (NMFS) lab at Mukilteo, WA called and asked if I wanted 
a couple of 5 pound nudibranchs. After quickly assuring him 
that I wanted them I mentally ran through the list of what they 
could be at that size: Dendronotus, Tritonia, Archidoris, or Tochuina. 
They turned out to be Tochuina tetraquetra (Pallas, 1788), locally 
known as the Orange Peel Nudibranch, but larger than any I've 
ever seen before; the Seattle Aquarium has frequently collected 
Tochuina but typically about 15 cm long. The larger of these two 
new monsters was 32.5 cm long, 16 cm wide and weighed 2.8 kg. 
It had been dredged by a NMFS survey crew in Discovery Bay, 
WA at 80 feet, along with many 6 foot sea whips (probably 
Stylatula), which it eats. It also eats the sea pen Ptilosarcus and 
the soft coral Gersemia. 

In the past I have been relatively successful in maintaining 
Tochuina in my display tanks. Sea pens are an available food 
source which they take readily. I hope to maintain one of these 
giants on display at least until summer, when warm water has 
sometimes caused a survival problem. Thank goodness garden 
slugs don't grow as big! 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17. NO. 4 



149 




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150 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4 



CLASSIFIED ADS 

Rates: $4.00 per line - single insert; $3.50 per line 
multiple insert, prepaid. We reserve the right to 
modify copy to fitpaid lines. "Exchange" listings 
are available at the same rates. 

For Sale - Retail 

NICE SHELLS — NICE SELECTION —NICE 
PRICES, LIST No. 2, FREE W/SASE. Steve 
Rosenthal, 4636 Arrowhead Dr., Apex, NC 27502 

FOR SALE: LARGE SHELL COLLECTION. 
For information write: M.L. Chapel, 2002 
Margaret Drive, Wichita Falls, Texas 76306. 

I am disposing of very fine Florida tree snails 
Liguus fasciatus and a few sets of Cuban Polymita 
from my personal collection. Write for free list. 
No dealers please. Archie L. Jones, 8025 SW 62 
Court, Miami, FL 33143. 

Worldwide Specimen Shells. List #19. BRUCE 
BENNARD, 67 Dogwood Acres Dr., Chapel Hill, 
NC 27514 

WORLD WIDE SEA SHELLS for collectors. 
Free Price List. Sea Gems, 2002 Margaret Drive, 
Wichita Falls, Texas, 76306 

BUSINESS CARDS — send sample layout for 
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listed here. 

Z070 Bartsch, P. 1918. A new West Indian fossil 

land shell. Proc. USNM, 54:605-606, pi. 93. $1. 

Z031 Bartsch, P. 1932. A newly discovered West 

Indian mollusk faunula. Proc. USNM,81(6):1-12, 

pis. 1-3. $3.70 

7248 Bartsch, P. 1946. The Operculate Land 

Mollusca. Annulariidae of Hispaniola & Bahamas. 

264 pp., 38 pi. SB $20.00 

Z035 Bartsch, P. Three new land shells from 

Mexico. Proc. USNM, 67(22):l-5, pi. 1. $1.50 

7508 Basly, J. Moluscos Marinos Del Norte dc 



Chile. Spanish. 49p., paperbound catalog of 

mollusks of northern Chile. Black & white photos. 

$10.25 

7497 Bernard, F.R. 1983. Catalog of Living 

Bivalvia of the eastern Pacific Ocean: Bering 

Strait to Cape Horn. 1308 species 102p. $9.95 

7249 Berry, S.S. 1929. Loliolopsis chiroctes, new 

Genus & Species of Squid from Gulf Calif. Trans. 

San Diego Soc. NH, 5(18):263-282, 2 pis. $5.00 

7955 Binney, W.G. & G.W. Tryon 1864. The 

Complete writings of Constantine Smaltz 

Rafinesque on Recent & Fossil Conchology. SB 

96p. + index & pis. $8.50 

7251 Binney, W.G. 1864-1864. Bibliography of N. 

American Conchology, 650 + 306pp. [Bound in 1 

vol.; some damage to binding; otherwise complete. 

AV $85 1 

7300 Birks, H.J.B. & H.H. Birks 1980. Quaternary 

Palaeocology. University Park Press, Baltimore, 

289pp. $17.95 

7310 Boger, H., R. Gersonde & R. Willmann 1979. 

L'evolution des gasteropodes lacustrcs 

paleoecologie diatomees Neogene Kos. Geobios, 

12(3):423-433. $1.75 

7320 Bolles Lee, A. & L.F. Henneguy 1896. Traite 

methodes techniques l'anatomie microscopique 

histologic, embryologie et zoologie. 515pp. HB, 

AV $49.50 

7330 Borgese, E. 1975. The Drama of the Oceans. 

HB 258pp., many color pis. $39.00 

7193 Boss, K. 1982. Mollusca sectionfromSynopsis 

and Classification. $17.50 

7130 Brann, 1966. Illustrations tothe Catalogueof 

Mazatlan Shells. Ill p., 60 pis., B&W drawings; 

"Cat.Coll.Mazatlan Shells" P.P. Carpenter. $11.75 

7340 Braun, E. 1975. Tideline. Viking Press, 144 

pp., HB $15.50 

7455 Breure A.S.H. & A.A.C. Eskcns Notes and 

Descriptions of Bulimulidae#186. Zool.Verhand. 

Anatomical data 52 species. 376 figs, 4 tbls, 8 pis. 

$24.75 

7103 Brigham, W.T. 1900. An Index to the Islands 

of the Pacific Ocean. Bishop Museum, Memoir, 

1(2):173 p., figs., maps, tbls. Reprint SB $49.75 

7179*Brown, D.S. 1980. Freshwater Snails of 

Africa and their Medical Importance. 400species, 

most illustrated, 450 pages, HB., 153 text figs. 

$65.25 

7676 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 

Tokyo February 1980. Vol.1 No. 3 $12.00 

7475 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 

Tokyo January 1983 Vol.1, No. 8.$7.50 

7369 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 

Tokyo July 1980. Vol.1, No. 4. $8.25 

7416 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 

Tokyo July 1981. Vol.1, No. 6. $9.75 

7486 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 

Tokyo July 1983 Vol.1, No. 9. $9.75 

7068 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 
Tokyo May 1979 Vol.1 No. 1 $8.25 

7513 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 
Tokyo May 1984 Vol.1, No. 10 New Buccinum, 
Pterochelus, Muricopsis, Cantharus; Family 
Conidae $7.50 

7069 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 
Tokyo November 1979. Vol.1 No. 2 $7.50 

7375 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 

Tokyo November 1980. Vol.lNo. 5 $9.75 

7432 Bulletin of the Institute of Malacology 

Tokyo October 1981. Vol.lNo. 7. $8.25 

7360 Bulletin of the Southern California 

Academy of Sciences, 1972. Vol. 71(2):57-112 

$4.95 



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152 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 4